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  1. What is Produced Water?
    During Oil and Gas Production, copious quantities of brine water are produced along with the hydrocarbons. The average contaminated brine water ratio compared to liquid equivalent hydrocarbons is about 6 barrels of water for each barrel equivalent of hydrocarbons. These brine waters frequently also contain toxic substances introduced during drilling and completion operations. The treatment and disposal costs can run from $0.50 per barrel in more mature geographic producing locations where disposal wells (usually old noncommercial wells) exist to $8.00 to $10.00 per barrel where transportation to such disposal facilities can be hundreds of miles away.
  2. What is Flow back Frac Water?
    The technology of Hydraulic Fracturing of Hydrocarbon Bearing, Subterranean Formations to create and prop open fissures in the hard rock and shale consumes massive quantities of fresh water. Upon completion of the fracture operation, that water flows back to the surface. It is usually contaminated with frequently unidentified, toxic substances requiring careful treatment and eventual disposal.
  3. Why does HED Employ High Vacuum Evaporation, and Closed Loop Heat Transfer?
    Many of the fluids HED’s systems are designed to process are highly corrosive, heat sensitive, and boiling points, at atmospheric pressure are extremely high. By utilizing the vapor pressure/temperature relationship of all fluids, lowering the boiling pressure evaporation can be accomplished at far lower temperatures. A typical Clear Brine Fluid to be concentrated at atmospheric pressure boils in the range of 225 F to 300 F. By lowering the boiling pressure to 28” Hg Vacuum, they will boil between 125 and 150 F.
  4. What are Clear Brine Completion Fluids?
    Clear Brine Completion Fluids (CBF’s) are weighted aqueous solutions of various salts from common Sodium Chloride, and Calcium Chloride to high molecular weight salts such as Calcium Bromide, Zinc Bromide and Zinc Formate. Water has a density of about 8.31 pounds per gallon. These CBF’s range from 10 pounds per gallon to 21 pounds per gallon. They are commonly used to “Kill” high pressure hydrocarbon production wells to enable work-over and completion activities at the surface to be safely accomplished.
  5. Why is it necessary to concentrate these fluids?
    The actual density of a CBF to be employed is dependent upon the depth, bottom hole pressure and temperature of the well to be treated. It is usually necessary to adjust the gravity of a “Stock” CBF, usually by dilution with water, to fit the conditions of the specific well.  These CBF’s are normally expensive, frequently reaching as much as $600 per 42 Gallon Barrel. Upon completion of a well treatment, the CBF is returned to the supplier for credit, and if diluted a reduced value is determined based upon the amount of “free, contaminating water” it contains. The conventional method has been to add original salts to reconstitute the density to the Stock values. If dilution is too severe it can result in prohibitive reconstituting costs rendering the returned fluid worthless.
  6. Why Use HED’s CBF Concentrator?
    Vacuum Evaporation removal of excess free water can be accomplished for pennies per pound of water, enabling recovery of otherwise worthless high cost CBF’s.